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Edinburgh, Leith, Dock Street, Johnston Street, Citadel Arch

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Record Detail

  • Organisation
    RCAHMS
  • Alternative name(s)
    CITADEL OF LEITH; LEITH CITADEL; CROMWELLIAN FORT
  • Canmore ID
    51917
  • Site type
    ARTILLERY FORTIFICATION
  • Parish
    EDINBURGH (EDINBURGH, CITY OF)
  • Council
    MIDLOTHIAN
  • NGR
    NT 26782 76615
  • Latitude, longitude
    55.976915N, 3.174845W
  • Archeological notes
    NT27NE 10 26782 76615 (NT 2678 7661) Citadel Port (NR) Citadel (NR) (remains of) OS 6" map, Edinburghshire, 1st ed., (1853). For discovery or discoveries of bronze axes (possibly a hoard) near the citadel, see NT27NE 16. For indeterminate 'Roman' remains (found 1825, 'in the neighbourhood of the Citadel'), see NT27NE 23. For 2004 discovery of part of the course of the Leith Citadel ditch and revetment wall (at NT 267 765), see NT27NE 1555. After the battle of Dunbar in 1650, Cromwell took possession of Leith and introduced a number of English settlers. For their protection, General Monk erected a citadel at the NW corner of North Leith, partly on the parish burial ground. (see NT27NE 9). According to Maitland (1753) it was pentagonal in shape with a bastion at each corner and one gateway, facing E. Arnot (1788) writing in 1779, notes that apart from "a strong gate with portcullices" most of the Citadel had already been demolished. The substructure of this gate still survives, giving access from Dock Street to Johnstone Street. It consists of a vaulted pend, with an arched gateway at either end. The gateway to the NE has provision for a double door, no doubt the "portcullices" mentioned by Arnot. The superstructure has been rebuilt as a house of two storeys. W Maitland 1753; H Arnot 1788; RCAHMS 1951. No change from previous information. Visited by OS (B S) 27 November 1975. The parapet is a conjectured reconstruction by Edinburgh City Architect's Department, 1964. J Gifford, C McWilliam and D Walker 1984. NT 2674 7654 The projected route of the Leith Citadel ditch and revetment wall (NT27NE 10) was found during an evaluation between November 2004 and January 2005. Evidence of later stone robbing from the revetment wall was also recorded. In addition, buried garden soils possibly dating to the 17th century were seen to exist in the NE part of the site. Earlier coastal deposits also survived on site. No evidence was encountered of structures within the Citadel. Archive to be deposited in NMRS. Sponsor: Hart Estates Ltd. E Hindmarch 2005.
  • Architectural notes
    NT27NE 10 26782 76615 Also known as Cromwell Barracks, built about 1656 by General Monk. Demolished c.1948 to make way for industrial development. Historical file. "The Citadel Leith" - 1 Drawing by Rollo. - 1 News cutting. In the National Library of Scotland, Vol.II., No 37, of Water Colour Sketches by Thomas Brown, Advocate, is a view in this Street. It seems to show the Citadel Port. Reference "Adv. MSS. 34.8.1-3" See under "Water colour Sketches, series of, by Thomas Brown, Advocate". Edinburgh, Leith, Citadel Feuing. James Gillespie Graham. Leith, lands at the Citadel. Feuing plan, 1807. (Edinburgh Evening Courant, Feb 14, 1807). Sources: Dean of Guild 2.6.1814 Pet. John Martin, Merchant in Queensferry. Corner tenement fronting the Citadel of Leith, near to the West end of therof - - precise location unknown at time of upgrade, 8.2.2000 Minor alterations - door.

Related material information

PHOTOGRAPHS

  • 51917 (1970)
    View of the gates of the old Citidel, Dock Street, now demolished.
  • 51917 (1970)
    View of the entrance gate to the old Citidal, Dock Street. Leith.
  • 51917 (1970)
    Photographic copy of an early map showing detail of the Citidal, Dock Street, Leith.
  • 51917 (1900)
    Edinburgh, Dock Street, Citadel. General view with children.
  • 51917 (1912)
    Edinburgh, Dock Street, Citadel. General view with people.
  • 51917 (1/2002)
    Photographs from Dock Street, Leith 2 Facing NE Sondage down face of wall 28 3 Facing NE Sondage down face of wall 28 4 Facing W E facing section trench 3, cobbling 24 7 Facing N Cobbling 24 10 Facing SE Wall foundations 27 & 29 13 Facing NE Wall 28 ashlar face
  • 51917 (1/2002)
    Photographs from Dock Street, Leith 2 Facing NW Trench 3 general 4 Facing W. Modern wall 15, trench 3 6 Facing E West facing section trench 3 (partial section through ditch) 7 Facing S NE facing section trench 4 (SE end) 10 Facing SE Trench 4 general (SE end) 13 Facing W Trench 4 sondage under cellar 16 Facing NW Citadel ditch wall foundation 28 in background, sondage following mortar spread in citadel ditch 18 Facing NE Citadel ditch wall foundation 28 & cut 17 in section 20 Facing SW Trench 5 general 22 Facing NE Trench 6 general 24 Facing SW Trench 6 general 26 Facing W Trench 3 E facing section of machine sondage 29 Facing E Trench 3 W facing section of machine sondage
  • 51917 (1/2002)
    Photographs from Dock Street, Leith 1 & 2 Facing NW Western end of Trench 1 See also BS 141/1 3 Facing E. Trench 1 showing foundation See also BS 141/2 4 Facing E. Trench 1 showing foundation 5 Facing NE. Possibly omitted from Photo Register -(?) Showing depth of trench (?) 6 & 7 Facing NE. Walls11 &12 plus lime mortar spread, Trench 2 (?). See also BS 141/3 8 Facing NE. Walls 8 & 9 Trench 2 (?) 9 Facing NE. Wall 7 Trench 2 (?)
  • 51917 (1/2002)
    Colour Slides from Dock Street, Leith 1/1 Facing NW. Western end of Trench 1. (Phase 1, January 2002) See also BP 141/1 1/2 Facing E. Trench 1 showing foundation. (Phase 1, January 2002) See also BP 141/3 1/3 Facing NE. Trench 2. Walls 11&12 plus lime mortar spread. (Phase 1, January 2002). See also BP 141/6 Remaining slides are all from Phase 2, August 2002. 2.3 Facing NW. Trench 3 general (Remaining slides all Phase 2, August 2002) 2.5 Facing W. Modern wall 15, trench 3 2.6 Facing E. Modern wall 15, trench 3 2.8 Facing NW. Modern wall 15, trench 3 2.9 Facing NW. Modern wall 15, trench 3 2.12 Facing E. West facing section, trench 3 2.15 Facing S. NE facing section, trench 4 (SE end) 2.18 Facing SE. Trench 4 general (SE end) 2.21 Facing W. Trench 4 - sondage under cellar 2.23 Facing NW. Citadel ditch wall foundation 28 2.24 Facing NE. Citadel ditch wall foundation 28 & cut 17 2.26 Facing E. Trench 5 general 2.28 Facing E. Trench 6 general 2.30 Facing W. Trench 6 general 2.32 Facing W. Trench 3. E facing section of machine sondage 2.35 Facing E. Trench 3. W facing section of machine sondage 3.3 Facing NE. Sondage down face of wall 28 3.6 Facing W. E facing section trench 3, cobbling 24 3.7 Facing N. Cobbling 24 3.8 Facing N. Cobbling 24 3.11 Facing SE. Wall foundations 27 & 29 3.12 Facing NE. Wall 28 ashlar face
  • 51917 (1950)
    Edinburgh, Leith, Dock Street, Citadel. General view of the archway.
  • 51917 (1950)
    Edinburgh, Leith, Dock Street, Citadel. General view of the arch.
  • 51917 ()
    Edinburgh, Leith, Dock Street, Citadel. General view of the arch.
  • 51917 ()
    Edinburgh, Leith, Dock Street, Citadel. General view looking through the Citadel arch to Johnston Street with children and adults on the steps and on the pavement.
  • 51917 ()
    Edinburgh, Leith, Citadel. General view with horse visible through archway.
  • 51917 (1975)
    Edinburgh, Leith Citadel. General view of arch and steps after demolision of the rest of the building.

DIGITAL IMAGES

  • 1232051 (30/9/1853)
    Ordnance Survey Map of Edinburgh. Coloured 1st edition 'Edinburgh and its Environs', Sheet 12. Includes Leith Fort, Leith Citadel, part of Leith Docks, North Junction Street.
  • 51917 (1943)
    Edinburgh, Leith, Dock Street, Citadel. Plan and elevation of the Citadel gateway and barrel vault. Insc: 'Cromwell's Citadel, Leith' Dyeline copy

SCANNED IMAGES

  • 1098950 (1900)
    Edinburgh, Dock Street, Citadel. General view with children.
  • 621194 (1912)
    The Citadel Arch, Dock Street, Edinburgh with people. Since demolished.
  • 610477 ()
    Edinburgh, Leith, Dock Street, Citadel. General view of the archway.
  • 610475 ()
    Edinburgh, Leith, Dock Street, Citadel. General view of the arch.

MANUSCRIPTS

  • 51917 (1/2002)
    (Dock Street, Leith) Survey Points (1p) Context Sheets - Contexts 15-31 (17pp) Photo Register No.3 (1p) Drawing Register (1p) Photo Register No.2 (1p) Context Register - Contexts 15-31) (1p) Trench Record Sheets 3,4,6,5 (4pp)
  • 51917 (1/2002)
    (Dock Street, Leith) Sample Register (1p) Context Register - Contexts 1-14) (1p) Context Sheets - Contexts 1-14 (14pp) Sketch diagram Trench 2 (1p) Photo Register No. 1.(1p)
  • 51917 (1/2002)
    Results of an Archaeological Investigation at Dock Street, Leith: Phase 2 - (Simon Stronach),Headland Archaeology Ltd - for Client: Gregor Shore plc. August 2002
  • 51917 (1/2002)
    Results of an Archaeological Investigation at Dock Street, Leith - Graeme Brown, Headland Archaeology Ltd - for Client: Gregor Shore plc. January 2002.

PRINTS AND DRAWINGS

  • 51917 (4/2002)
    BD 149/1 Plan 1 - Trench 1. 1:50 16.1.02 BD 149/2 Plan 2 - Trench 2. 1:50 BD 149/3 Trench 3 - NW-facing Section of Wall foundation & overlying levelling deposit [18] BD 149/4 Trench 3 - continuation of BD 149/3: NW-facing Section of Wall foundation & overlying levelling deposit [18] BD 149/5 Untitled (but shows Section of Hardcore over [22], [23], [24] BD 149/6? (This plan appears to relate to different project)
  • 51917 (1943)
    Edinburgh, Leith, Dock Street, Citadel. Plan and elevation of the Citadel gateway and barrel vault. Insc: 'Cromwell's Citadel, Leith' Dyeline copy
  • 51917 ()
    Edinburgh, Citadel Street, Leith Citadel. Plan of citadel superimposed upon modern map. Unsigned.
  • 51917 ()
    Edinburgh, Citadel Street, Leith Citadel. Plan of Citadel existing. Titled: 'No.12' Unsigned.
  • 51917 ()
    Edinburgh, Citadel Street, Leith Citadel. Plan of Mr Davidson property of Citadel. Titled: 'Plan of Property at Citadel belonging to Mr Davidson'. Unsigned.
  • 51917 ()
    Edinburgh, Citadel Street, Leith Citadel. Plan of ground at Citadel Green. Titled: 'Plan of Citadel Green, Leith'. Unsigned.

PRINT ROOM

  • 51917 (23/10/1948)
    Edinburgh, Leith, Leith Citadel. Image and caption of building at Leith Citadel. Titled: 'A seventeenth century building at Leith Citadel, which is now being demolished for industrial development. This building is part of the Citadel, known as Cromwell's Barracks, and was built about 1656 by General Monk, the City of Edinburgh contributing 5000 pounds'.

1st edition 6-inch maps

TitleDateOther parishes/counties
 Ordnance Survey six-inch to the mile, Edinburghshire, Sheet 21852
 Ordnance Survey six-inch to the mile, Edinburghshire, Sheet 21877